Some of these activities also lead to a loss of human health. We know that the prices change every month, every week, and in certain cases from day to day; therefore, which price should be chosen to ascertain the money value of the products, is really a tough choice. But in national income estimates, this is not so. However, it is important to note that retained earnings of foreign enterprises owned by residents do not actually return to the residents concerned. Therefore income derived from such activities is not reflected in the total national income and to that extent there is a underestimation of the volume of national income. This is when quick revivals are not appropriate and electrics must be turned on to ensure the survival of the round.
Statistical data : Because of illiteracy many producers do not maintain proper accounts regarding output, income and expenditure. Even the available has become quite a reliable due to various factors such as geographical condition, etc. Unpaid services :- In national income only those services are included for which the payment is made. Product Method Under this method, measurement of national income is calculated at the stage of production of goods and services during a year. However, in theory, such income is a part of national income.
Sale and Purchase of second-hand goods should not be included in measuring value of output of a year. They also enable to analyze and understand the significance of each sector in an economy. However, the more accurate that the attitude measures are, the more likely the predictions will match up with the attitudes. There are many involved in measuring national income. A particular commodity should be counted only once at a particular state.
But the value of money is not stable, as it changes from time to time, due to which the estimates of national income are affected and consequently, it is not possible to have an accurate picture of the national income. This has been an issue for countries like China — whose breakneck economic growth has been at the expense of pollution. Moreover, in the absence of records, most individuals and households are not able to provide correct information of their consumption and investment values. The Value of Leisure 3. They are mentioned as below: Difficulties in Measuring National Income 1. The wrong method leads to poor results.
In other words the net difference between the value of imports and the value of exports should be properly adjusted. Lack of Reliable Data: The reliability of data relating to national income estimation is often questioned in India. In this case, the national income will decrease as her services performed remains the same as before. Because these companies send some portion of their profit to their own countries. But these are not considered in view of the difficulties of estimating such income. Problems due to changes in Market prices : Gross national income figures increase due to an increase in the market prices of goods and services. Therefore national income estimate may not be accurate.
The three methods of calculating national income are given below: 1. There are also surveys done constantly. If a teacher gives coaching to his children, it is considered a free service. Final goods refer to those goods which are readily available for consumption. The logical inconsistency of this stand comes to the fore when we compare two Situations. The problem of changing prices is one of the major problems of national income accounting.
Macroeconomic is a contribution of various economic factors su … ch as total employment, exchange, productivity, income, wealth, inflation, interest rate, balance of payments, monetary policy, savings, investment, international trade and international finance. Therefore national income estimate may not be accurate. An open economy imports and exports a number of goods and services like machinery, petroleum product, vehicle, etc. For example, homeowners who live in their own homes enjoy the housing services their homes provide. There is no clear-cut division of occupations and it is very difficult to identify the incomes of the individuals from a specific job or other occupational undertakings.
Besides, we find different typed of prices existing in the market, e. The users of such resources make the payment of factors of production in the form of rent, wages, interest, profit, payments for raw materials. These difficulties relate to the various concepts of national income. In fact, these activities add to production when we engage the services of a lady ayah who takes care of a child against some monetary payments. For example, cotton used at a surgical Clinic is the final product for a doctor, but if the same cotton is used by the cotton milt to manufacture cloth, it will be treated as intermediate product.
It arises from failure to distinguish properly, between a final and an intermediate product. Family members are engaged in the work and they should not maintain any account. Non-Monetized sector : Some of the goods produced are not sold for money. While estimating the national income, it is always not possible to make a clear distinction between intermediate goods and final goods. The four factors of production such as- land, labor, capital and organization in a country produce a certain volume of goods and services every year.