In 1981, Indian scientists had reached the Antarctic and set up Bharati station. In these circumstances, the Government of India constituted die Board of Scientific and Industrial Research in 1940. Continuous emergence of new areas and micro areas are gradually gaining the importance and specialized research areas like Superconductivity, Laser, Supercomputers, Robots and Robotics, Information Technology, Optic fibers etc. The modern age is the age of science, technology, knowledge and information. The economically beleaguered country was nevertheless able to build a large scientific workforce, second in numbers only to that of the United States and the Soviet Union. Some use technology, some abuse technology. Further, studies of the impact of Indian science on society and national development are often based on sporadic, outdated, and scattered Indian reports.
The Department of Space occupies a unique place in that it generates its own technologies, adopts technologies developed by Indian industries and transfers spin-offs of advanced technologies, developed in space programmes, to industry. It is difficult to imagine that Brahmagupta truly believed his own objections, and there is a story that toward the end of his life he regretted having poured scorn on Aryabhata and his followers. Major experimental facilities, even in several areas of basic research, require very large amount of materials, human and intellectual resources. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. The fact that the numeral system common today—the closest we have to a universal language—comes from India is well known. Vaccination, rhinoplasty, and eye surgery were practices well known in India long before they were introduced in the West.
The yield evidence of a single roller in use by the 5th century. He made the original plan for Damodar Valley Project. The most obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance. Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1927 but became state responsibility only in 1930. C or much earlier when the people, of Indus Valley Civilization came to know first time about the fire and the wheel. When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered Rayleigh scattering.
They considered atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. The first Indian to be elected to the Royal Society of London was the Parsi engineer Ardaseer Cursetji, whose docks in Bombay built ships better than the British could at the time. He was the president of Indian Physical Society and the National Institute of Science. Space Programs Outside the United States: All Exploration and Research Efforts, Country by Country. Likewise, throughout from the very ancient period to the medieval or to the modern, the planning and policy of Science and Technology are the major areas of emphasis. Details of policies, schemes, documents and programmes for scientists, researchers, scholars, students, etc. Few are aware that India was the fountainhead of important foundational scientific developments and approaches.
The concept of zero and its integration into the place-value system also enabled one to write numbers, no matter how large, by using only ten symbols. But Science and Technology got its real recognition in India during the British period and were established to meet the needs and requirements of the then government. Newer areas of technology transfer encompass development of new drugs, catalysts for petro-refining and petrochemicals, agrotechnologies. I see the following important trends in technology based on what I have seen in the 20th century: Ø Everything is being miniaturised, from micro-motors to micro-electronics. Early reference to diamonds comes from Sanskrit texts. The other manuscript, used as a source by Francesco I, is titled Samgraha'. The peaceful nuclear programme also includes producing radio-isotopes for use in agriculture, medicine, industry and research.
Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. Research has shown that from making the best steel in the world to teaching the world to count, India was actively contributing to the field of science and technology centuries long before modern laboratories were set up. Market size India ranks 6th position for scientific publications and ranks at 10th for patents which included only resident applications. . The scattered photons have the same energy frequency and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons.
Operation Smiling Buddha is the name of the first nuclear test that was conducted on 18 May 1974 at Pokhran in Rajasthan. Saha was also the chief architect of river planning in India. The text mentions various illnesses, plants, preparations and cures along with complex techniques of plastic surgery. The use of using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible by about the 4th century. For consent related queries and conditions, please write to An initiative of the. Today, we can withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. It is likely that the luxuriance of tropical vegetative growth led to a wide availability of naturally occurring substances whose use to combat specific diseases was studied extensively.
Advancement in science and technology is essential for a country to be strong and well-developed in the global arena. The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. Space Technology India is one of the few countries with expertise to conceptualize, design and manufacture satellites and the capability to launch them into space. The treatise on Sanskrit grammar written by the renowned Panini ca. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India. National resources are augmented by the substitution of cheap and abundant materials for those in scarce supplies and by finding uses for materials, which have remained un-utilized, prior to independence, very little attention was given to the problem of scientific and industrial research in India.