Intervention may involve the implementation of alternative instructional methodologies; small-group skills remediation; or more intensive instruction, such as individual tutoring sessions. Because fine motor and visual—motor integration skills are essential to kindergarten performance as well as predictive of later achievement, they require prompt intervention when a concern arises. Informing Decisions About Instructional Response Researchers and practitioners have used a variety of approaches to identify students with adequate and inadequate levels of intervention responsiveness. Effectiveness of paraeducator-supplemented individual instruction: Beyond basic decoding skills. Students also must not be responding to high-quality general education instruction i. The teachers supplied materials and set up the classroom as needed.
In these studies, interventionists provided standard protocol reading interventions individually or to small groups of at-risk readers. One of the key lessons that has been learned from other service delivery reforms in recent years is the importance of building systems capacity for the changes ahead. Horowitz at the 49th Annual Conference of The International Dyslexia Association. It virtually requires that students 'crash and burn' academically before they can gain access to special education services and it reinforces failure, ultimately making remediation much more difficult. He is author of roughly 100 research articles and several books, including A Basic Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Teaching phonological Awareness. A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades.
Their findings lend support for examining the effects of a visual—motor and fine motor intervention on general education students without disabilities. Researchers can address this need through the evaluation of early reading programs that emphasize both word-level and text-level skills. The high cost of such an initiative should be weighed against the cost of continued failure to teach a large percentage of students in our schools to read adequately. These results are also consistent with the findings of and , who found improvements after implementing programs that combined direct intervention and consultation and teacher-introduced fine motor centers, respectively. According to this hierarchy, learners progress through three stages as they become proficient with skills: acquisition, fluency and generalization.
Most of these studies found improvements among children with disabilities or delays who received direct occupational therapy services throughout the course of the school year. According to the results, 75% of the teachers were still using the fine motor center with their class. Schools will not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. Research is needed to assess the consequences of providing Tier 2 interventions delivered at various levels of intensity. Handbook of response to intervention. We also thank Suzanne Sanchez and Ava Mopper at the New York City Department of Education Office of Related and Contractual Services for funding the supplies used in this study.
Several studies have indicated that occupational therapy—led fine motor and visual—motor intervention programs are effective in preschool and lower elementary school ; , ; ;. This finding is interesting given that the intervention group received explicit instruction on how to hold the pencil using a mature tripod grasp and provides evidence that pencil grip is dynamic in young children. They found that although the kindergarten classrooms were rich with fine motor activities, carefully constructed and coached activities were more effective in improving pincer grasp than mere exposure to daily fine motor activities. The promise of response to intervention: Evaluating current science and practice. Although a large number of children at all ages used mature pencil grips, the scale developers found and documented a developmental progression. More data is needed about the efficacy of individualized interventions in other domains such as math, the researchers say. Eight teachers 4 intervention classroom teachers and 4 control group teachers also participated in this study.
Both laws underscore the importance of providing high quality, scientifically-based instruction and interventions, and hold schools accountable for the progress of all students in terms of meeting state grade level standards. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. This study tested the efficacy of a short-term Tier 1 RtI program developed to improve the fine motor and visual—motor integration skills of general education kindergarten students at the beginning of the school year. Delaying the provision of intensive interventions may substantially decrease the likelihood that seriously impaired readers will learn to read adequately. Cognitive correlates of inadequate response to reading intervention. Copyright 2007, National Association of School Psychologists, All rights reserved. A short form containing only 21 items is available for children aged 2—7 yr; the short form was used in this study and administered in a group.
Neither group demonstrated a change in pencil grip. Differentiated instruction Effective Tier 1 instruction is differentiated, meaning that children receive instruction targeted to meet their needs as readers. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 38, 539- 544. Effective Instruction and Interventions There is a continued need for experimental studies designed to evaluate programs for primary-grade students with reading difficulties with reading difficulties, particularly programs targeting vocabulary development and reading comprehension difficulties, but there is also a need for research investigating the implementation conditions under which these interventions are most effective. The first lesson focused on positioning, posture, and breath. Researchers have tested models in which Tier 2 begins in kindergarten e.
Data from the Therapist—Teacher Interaction Logs and the 3-mo teacher follow-up survey indicate that this collaboration took place. An important future research contribution would be to assess the number and types of occupational therapy evaluation referrals generated by RtI intervention and control classrooms. Using a core program may help ensure that instruction is evidence based and addresses key objectives. As each activity was presented, the classroom teacher added it to the fine motor center and incorporated it during the school day. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 201- 211. In this model, Tier 2 was offered throughout the study for students who required ongoing support but not the intensity of Tier 3 interventions, and it was possible for students to enter and exit Tiers 2 and 3 and then reenter at a later time if needed. There were no posttest differences in rates of adequate intervention response; however, across all groups, the percentage of students with adequate response to the intervention was smaller than has often been reported for more extensive first grade reading interventions.
Additionally, two fine motor skills—in-hand manipulation and sequential finger opposition—strongly correlate with handwriting performance ;. Preventing reading difficulties in young children. They found that children without disabilities made statistically significant changes in all eight visual—motor and fine motor measures, whereas children with disabilities made significant changes in two of the fine motor assessments. Some new federal laws have directed schools to focus more on helping all children learn by addressing problems earlier, before the child is so far behind that a referral to special education services is warranted. The researchers reported that all students who received Tier 2 and about 40% of the students who were assigned to Tier 3 intervention performed in the average range in Grade 3 on measures of word reading and oral reading fluency. Tier 1: Evidence-Based Differentiated Instruction Researchers have demonstrated that quality evidence-based classroom reading instruction is sufficient for most students who are at risk for reading difficulties to learn to read at average levels e. Doing what we have always done, on the other hand, is likely to result in the outcomes that have been consistently observed.
Brush grasp 0 0 0 0 5. This study examines the effects of second and third tier interventions delivered as needed from kindergarten through third grade on students' reading development and placement in special education by the end of third grade. Longitudinal research on the long-term effects of beginning intervention at various points in kindergarten or Grade 1 would be useful, as would continued work to develop accurate screening procedures that are feasible for use in schools. Another challenge is that the strongest research support for evidence-based interventions is in the area of reading. Tutor-assisted intensive learning strategies in kindergarten: How much is enough? RtI typically follows a three-tiered intervention approach, with each tier serving a decreasing number of students with an increasing intensity of service and monitoring. Occupational therapists provided lesson plans to the teachers in advance. Instruction for students with inadequate response There have been few studies examining Tier 3 interventions for students with limited responsiveness in Tiers 1 and 2, and there is even less research examining effective instruction for students who make inadequate progress in Tier 3.