They feared the rebuke of their master, and for a short space went quicker. Thus spake the youth, nor did his words offend; Pleasd with the well-turnd flattery of a friend, Achilles smiled: The gift proposed he cried , Antilochus! Far as an able arm the disc can send, When youthful rivals their full force extend, So far, Antilochus! Menoetius would tell his son Patroclus to be a wise counsel to the younger Achilles, but it is commonly said that both Patroclus and Achilles would be thereafter by the wise centaur Chiron, who had previously trained the likes of Jason and Asclepius. They set him down in a swoon and then went to fetch the double cup. No sooner had he spoke, but, thundring near, Drives, thro a stream of dust, the charioteer; High oer his head the circling lash he wields; His bounding horses scarcely touch the fields: His car amidst the dusty whirlwind rolld, Bright with the mingled blaze of tin and gold, Refulgent thro the cloud: no eye could find The track his flying wheels had left behind: And the fierce coursers urged their rapid pace So swift, it seemd a flight, and not a race. Still, no man can be good at everything. What does this tell us about the values or culture of the Greeks? No grateful sacrifice, No firstling lambs, unheedful! I tell you, and it shall surely beNestor will keep neither of you, but will put both of you to the sword, if we win any the worse a prize through your carelessness.
He saw; and, rising, to the Greeks begun: Are yonder horse discernd by me alone? Agamemnon's refusal angered the god Apollo, who caused a plague to afflict the Greek army. Patroclus the Hero and His Death Agamemnon tried to entice Achilles to fight again by sending three of the Greek heroes to return Briseis and offer other incentives for Achilles to enter the battle. The funeral procession, and the offering their hair to the dead. When Achilles saw him he was sorry, and stood up among the Argives saying, The best man is coming in last. In a post-Homeric version, he is listed among the unsuccessful suitors of of Sparta, all of whom took a solemn to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with him.
Thus sourly waild he, sputtring dirt and gore; A burst of laughter echoed thro the shore. It was a gully, where the winter's rain Had lain collected, and had broken through A length of road, and hollow'd out the ground: There Menelaus held his cautious course. He reported having seen Patroclus in the company of Achilles, , Telamonian Ajax, Antilochus, and Helen. The Goddess then Admetus' son pursued, And snapp'd his chariot yoke; the mares, releas'd, Swerv'd from the track; the pole upon the ground Lay loosen'd from the car; and he himself Beside the wheel was from the chariot hurl'd. I saw them at first making their way round the doubling-post, but now, though I search the plain of Troy, I cannot find them. Too true it is, deserted of my strength, These witherd arms and limbs have faild at length.
Idomeneus incensd rejoind: Barbrous of words! For Patroclus, however, life was cut short by his poor decisions and unyielding fury toward the Trojans. Just as Antilochus finishes second to Diomedes, so does Achilles rank second to Agamemnon; Antilochus, as Achilles does earlier, refuses to suffer the injustice and humiliation of having his achievements go unappreciated. While the Greek games seemed festive and joyful, the Roman funeral games were dark and dangerous. The fact that Hector uses these as his few dying words highlights the great importance of commemoration in the Homeric world. Many of the Trojan army immediately began to retreat, thinking Achilles was on the battlefield. Achilles then sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, boxing, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing, archery and spear throwing. Rise, if thou darest, before thy chariot stand, The driving scourge high lifted in thy hand, And touch thy steeds, and swear thy whole intent Was but to conquer, not to circumvent.
Give me now your hand I pray you, for when you have once given me my dues of fire, never shall I again come forth out of the house of Hades. Angry at having to give up his prize, Agamemnon claimed Briseis instead. As mourns a father o'er a youthful son, Whose early death hath wrung his parents' hearts; So mourn'd Achilles o'er his friend's remains, Prostrate beside the pyre, and groan'd aloud. Achilles sacrifices several animals, and lastly, twelve Trojan captives, at the pile; then sets fire to it. When Achilles led the Greek army into battle, the Greeks prevailed. Once more afresh the Grecian sorrows flow: And now the sun had set upon their woe; But to the King of Men thus spoke the Chief: Enough, Atrides! The next, tho distant, Menelaus succeeds; While thus young Nestor animates his steeds: Now, now, my genrous pair, exert your force; Not that we hope to match Tydides horse; Since great Minerva wings their rapid way, And gives their lord the honours of the day.
Venus and Apollo observe the scene from the heavens. The prizes next are orderd to the field, For the bold champions who the cæstus wield. This could perhaps be seen as an attempt to bring themselves closer to the deceased by defiling their own bodies. And now Antilochus, with nice survey, Observes the compass of the hollow way. The son of Peleus now brought out the prizes for the third contest and showed them to the Argives. Throughout The Iliad of Homer, the constant theme of death is inherently apparent. Despite the bitter inescapability of death, certain deeds can attain honour and fame that will live on even after the finality of death, so long as they are preserved and immortalised in art.
You will then know to your cost. Thus did he speak, and they did even as he had said. To close the funeral games, Achilles last A massy spear amid the circle placed, And ample charger of unsullied frame, With flowers high wrought, not blackend yet by flame. Then let my foe Draw near, but first his certain fortune know, Secure, this hand shall his whole frame confound, Mash all his bones, and all his body pound: So let his friends be nigh, a needful train, To heave the batterd carcass off the plain. But stay ye here, and seated in the ring, Their coming wait; they, hurrying to the goal, Will soon be here; and then shall each man know Whose horses are the second, whose the first.
A massive sacrifice is made to the gods, including the twelve Trojans that Achilles took captive the previous day. Th attending heralds, as by office bound, With kindled flames the tripod-vase surround; To cleanse his conquering hands from hostile gore, They urged in vain; the Chief refused, and swore, No drop shall touch me, by Almighty Jove! As the Trojans pushed toward the Greek ships, Patroclus tried another tactic. He then rose and said among the Argives, Stand forward, you who will essay this contest. Achilles oversees a series of funeral games to celebrate the memory of Patroclus. He stood up and said among the Argives, We bid two champions put on their armour, take their keen blades, and make trial of one another in the presence of the multitude; whichever of them can first wound the flesh of the other, cut through his armour, and draw blood, to him will I give this goodly Thracian sword inlaid with silver, which I took from Asteropæus, but the armour let both hold in partnership, and I will give each of them a hearty meal in my own tent.
When the pile has burned all night, they gather the bones, place them in an urn of gold, and raise the tomb. So spoke Antilochus; and at the word The mare contested to the King restord. The sheer volume of the Iliad given over to description of funerary rites emphasises that this was clearly a key part of Homeric culture. After the men have brought the lumber, they go off to prepare a meal while the chief mourners deal with the pyre cutting piece on fat from sacrificed animals to cover the body. The war lasted ten years with the Greek army laying siege to the city of Troy. His father was one of the , while many different women have been mentioned as ' mother; Polymele, Sthenele, and Periopis.
Nevermore shall we sit apart and take sweet counsel among the living; the cruel fate which was my birthright has yawned its wide jaws around menay, you too Achilles, peer of gods, are doomed to die beneath the wall of the noble Trojans. Now, therefore, let us do all that this sad festival demands, but at break of day, King Agamemnon, bid your men bring wood, and provide all else that the dead may duly take into the realm of darkness; the fire shall thus burn him out of our sight the sooner, and the people shall turn again to their own labours. Patroclus is cremated on a , and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The sand and grit rained thick on the driver, and the chariot inlaid with gold and tin ran close behind his fleet horses. The pyre constructed for Patrolcus was 100 feet by 100 feet, but it refused to light until and Zephyrus were called upon to aid the lighting. Atrides, trembling, casts his eye below, And wonders at the rashness of his foe: Hold, stay your steedswhat madness thus to ride This narrow way! Now at this point Patroclus forgot the words of Achilles, and set off in pursuit of the Trojans.