I shall here endeavour to find some new absurdities in this reasoning. As our senses shew us in one instance two bodies, or motions, or qualities in certain relations of succession and contiguity; so our memory presents us only with a multitude of instances, wherein we always find like bodies, motions, or qualities in like relations. The ideas are truly challenging, even 250 years later. But he emphasizes that while he will try to find the most general principles, rendering them as universal as possible, all of his explanations must be based completely on experience. It received little attention and Hume was sorely disappointed.
At bottom, for him, morality is just another species of pain and pleasure, and he doesn't try to show in what manner it differs from other types of pain and pleasure. But this presents two difficulties: first, our greed is not in fact best satisfied by just action in every case, and second, Hume denies that this motive is approved. That opinion must be entirely owing to the imagination: which must now be the subject of our enquiry. External objects are seen, and felt, and become present to the mind; that is, they acquire such a relation to a connected heap of perceptions, as to influence them very considerably in augmenting their number by present reflexions and passions, and in storing the memory with ideas. Taking aspirin in the past has relieved my headaches, so I expect that the aspirin I just took will soon relieve my present headache. Hume concludes that a priori reasoning can't be the source of the connection between our ideas of a cause and its effect.
Hume has two sets of opponents: the self-love theorists and the moral rationalists. In the Treatise Hume argues in turn that the virtues of material honesty and of faithfulness to promises and contracts are artificial, not natural virtues. You can find the details of our flair system. But once government is instituted, we come to have a moral obligation to obey our governors; this is another artificial duty that needs to be explained. The contrary belief, attending the possibility, implies a view of a certain object, as well as the probability does an opposite view. We have retained both notes, but so as not to upset the numbering, the note at T 2.
The only difficulty, that can remain on this subject, must be with regard to that custom, which so readily recalls every particular idea, for which we may have occasion, and is excited by any word or sound, to which we commonly annex it. One way of understanding Hume's project is to see it as an attempt to naturalize Hutcheson's moral sense theory. For this reason I have here chosen to begin with ideas. Support for Locke's rejection of the concept of substance. An offer to serve as Librarian to the Edinburgh Faculty of Advocates gave Hume the opportunity to begin another project, a History of England, using the law library's excellent resources. Our secondary, indirect passions involve reflective thought that include associations of emotions with each other , which Hume lists as pride, humility, ambition, vanity, love, hatred, envy, pity, malice, and generosity.
But it has no religiously significant content because Philo's critique has drained it of any content whatsoever. Six years later, he stood for the Chair of Logic at Glasgow, only to be turned down again. He also included material he had excised from the Treatise. The distinction, which we often make betwixt power and the exercise of it, is equally without foundation. Given God's omnipotence, whatever he wills happens, but neither humans nor animals are happy, so God presumably does not will their happiness. Of this we shall see many instances in the progress of this treatise.
I had almost said, that this was certain; but I reflect, that it must reduce itself, as well as every other reasoning, and from knowledge degenerate into probability. Courage and military heroism are also forms of pride. While it was clear enough that one may believe in the reality of any or all of these objects, it was pointed out that there is no logical foundation for these beliefs nor for the existence of the objects to which they refer. Of the love of fame. Part 2 deals with the ideas of space and time. Men are not able radically to cure, either in themselves or others, that narrowness of soul, which makes them prefer the present to the remote.
He finally realizes that the case Philo is making cuts against his own view as much as it cuts against Cleanthes'. His empiricism is naturalistic in that it refuses to countenance any appeal to the supernatural in the explanation of human nature. This clearly appears from the precedent explication of necessity. Therefore all actions deemed virtuous derive their goodness only from virtuous motives — motives we approve. Demea objects that Cleanthes exaggerates the dire consequences of acknowledging the human condition, and, despite his earlier vehement rejection of theodicies, offers his own.
Our ideas upon their appearance produce not their correspondent impressions, nor do we perceive any colour, or feel any sensation merely upon thinking of them. Of the influence of these relations on pride and humility. And as this absurdity is very glaring in itself, so there is no argument founded on it, which is not attended with a new absurdity, and involves not an evident contradiction. We never have any impression, that contains any power or efficacy. The language is pretty straightforward. Hume initially distinguishes impressions and ideas in terms of their degree of force and vivacity.