Nietzsche argues that the chorus is perhaps the fundamental mechanism of the tragic experience. The purpose of the chorus was to bridge the gap between the audience and the players and to intensify the emotion. Composed of similarly costumed men, they performed on the , located beneath the stage. Ranging in number from 50 in the time of Thespis to 15 in later classical Greek drama, the chorus consisted of Athenian citizens and were not professional actors. Aside from the practical the chorus would have had numerous functions in providing a comprehensive and continuous artistic unit. At the same one may praise primarily as an enhancer and amplifier of impression, and sometimes the voice of a moderator, or the moral voice of the people.
Usually in satyrs the chorus will act out lewd pantomime, etc. While the strophe and antistrophe are delivered in the same meter as one another, the epode is often slightly different. They must write at least six full sentences in modern language or a more poetic style. Drawing contributions from noted practitioners and scholars, Theatre Journal features social and historical studies, production reviews, and theoretical inquiries that analyze dramatic texts and production. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. In many of these plays, the chorus told the audience what the main characters could not say, such as their hidden fears or secrets.
Nietzsche suggests that it was the rhythmic dance and chants of the chorus, positioned always to mediate the physical space separating audience and actor, that evoked the visionary experience that was the very essence of tragedy. The Sophoclean chorus was divided into two sub-choruses of 6 hemichoria and a leader koryphaios ; the number of actors increased from two to three. The entrances and exits of the coryphaeus and his chorus served the same way curtains do in a modern theatre. It could be argued that the thing that unified the chorus was their mode of communication — more often than not the chorus would elevate its meaning in song. The chorus offered background information, summaries and comments. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. New York: Forgotten Books, 2007.
In , the chorus, a group of players whose song and dance routines usually reflect and the development of the plot, became increasingly more prominent during the 20th century. More rarely in poetry the term chorus arises in another sense that of a repeated refrain such as in used in writing out lyrics to a song. Linda becomes angry, refunds Lenny's money, and forces him to leave. Linda is a bit of a ditz with a crude sense of humor and delusions of becoming a stage actress. In the mid-1920s, song and dance numbers began to stem more naturally from the plot, and the chorus danced more than it sang. He sometimes came first to introduce the chorus, and sometimes spoke for them if they were taking part in the action.
The chorus will recite the piece they created, working on speaking clearly and with great diction, to illustrate what the protagonist is doing. Choirs can be categorized by the voices:. By using rhythmical function, the chorus adds pauses and helps to paces the action so that the audience can reflect. In order to understand the function of the chorus one must remember that at the origins of Greek drama there was only one actor; and even at later dates no more than three actors occupied the stage, each of whom may have played several roles. The chorus enters the orchestra during the parados, from the two ramps known as paradoi on either side of the orchestra. A third component of the ode, the epode, is sometimes delivered after the strophe and antistrophe.
The Importance of Being Earnest has discrete acts subdivided into scenes, with a cast of characters engaged in dialogue with one another. The three famous Greek tragedians whose works survive, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, made further contributions to the genre of tragedy. In the second generation of Athenian tragedy the chorus often had a more substantial role in the narrative; in Euripedes's Bacchae, for example, the chorus, representing the frenzied female worshippers of Dionysus becomes a central character in itself. The story of Aphrodite and Ares. Everyone in the chorus wore this mask as they were portrayed to be one character instead of a group.
There is perhaps a bit too much of the chorus galavanting about delivering their increasingly colloquial admonitions and too few convulsive laughs, but the writer-director has generally pitched the humor at a pleasing and relatively consistent level. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral, in which the Women of Canterbury serve as a chorus. Such usage of the choral structure-making functions may be observed throughout many classical plays but may be more obvious in some than in others. New York: Forgotten Books, 2007. Additional exteriors were filmed in and. To modern readers of Greek tragedy, the chorus may seem an interlude between the main action -- a section to gloss over.
The screenplay was inspired by the story of and is about Lenny Weinrib's Allen search for his genius adopted son's biological mother, ultimately finding that she is a dim-witted prostitute named Linda Ash Sorvino. Their job was to comment on the action in the play, either by speaking all together or by singing. Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted. The Greek chorus was part of. A chorus in Greek fashion is not common in later plays, although there are instances such as T.
Sophocles increased the chorus to 15 members, although the choral odes became only tenuously related to the dramatic action. Dialogue consisted of long, formal speeches in verse. Their judgment is the verdict of history. For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. It comments on themes, and shows how an ideal audience might react to the drama.